back / zurück
Abgeschickt von Peter F. Hunt (RHS) am 02 April, 2000 um 19:01:39
Antwort auf: Re: Hybrid names von Michael Weinert am 13 Februar, 2000 um 19:55:33:
I tabulate below several matters regarding orchid hybrid (grex) registration:
1) The Rules and Recommendations of Nomenclature and Registration for Cultivated Orchids (grexes and cultivars) can be found in the Handbook on Orchid Nomenclature and Registration (fourth edition 1993) published by the International Orchid Commission. These rules are based on the provisions of, and are in accordance with, the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants and the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. It must be stressed that these rules have been designed to be applicable to all orchid breeders (8000 approximately from 1856 to date) and to all orchid hybrids (106,000 grexes in 250 natural and 700 hybrid genera, derived from 2500 species as at today's date).
2) There is no comprehensive registration scheme for cultivars although several attempts have been made to implement such a system but all have failed because of the size of the task. It can be assumed that as each orchid grex and species cultivated, has at least two cultivars, and many have several hundred, the total number of orchid cultivars equals about 250,000.
3) It must be stressed that the cultivar name of an orchid is composed of three epithets - the generic epithet (natural or hybrid genus), the specific or grex epithet and the cultivar epithet. As in most, if not all, other groups of decorative and crop plants, distinctiveness between orchids is recognised by distinct cultivar names.
4) Cultivar epithets can be repeated as many times as there are grexes and species in a genus.
5) In the orchid family, cultivars are always clones propagated by division, mericloning or selfing.
6) The cultivars resulting from a cross can vary greatly, frequently exhibiting the full range of variation from one parent to another.
7) The Orchid Registration Advisory Committee of the Royal Horticultural Society does consider changes to the rules governing hybrids but only acts in an advisory capacity to the International Orchid Commission on Classification, Nomenclature and Registration.
8) The International Registration Authority deliberately takes a conservative view of species for various reasons namely to avoid an unnecessary increase of grex epithets and with the realisation that taxonomic revisions are always temporary and depend very much on the individual taxonomist, the criteria used, the number of specimens examined and the taxonomist's decision of the level of distinctness (eg species/subspecies, genus/subgenus etc). To reduce this problem in the real worlds of orchid breeding and orchid taxonomy we have successfully used the concept of "Horticultural Equivalents" for many years.
To answer other specific points:
1) Hybrid A x B has the same grex name as Hybrid B x A irrespective of which parental cultivars are used, the variability of the parents (grexes and/or species) not being relevant. The grex name remains in perpetuity for any crosses between any cultivars of A x B.
2) This is an extract from the Orchid Handbook: "The Names of Orchid Hybrids Which Both Occur Naturally and Have been Raised Artificially:- If a natural hybrid is, or has been, also raised artificially (i.e. as a grex) the following provisions apply:
(a) If the first cultivar of the grex blooms after a botanist has described and published a Latin collective name for a natural hybrid between the same two species, then the epithet to be used for the grex is the same as the collective epithet published for the natural hybrid. In writing or printing the name of a particular cultivar, or group of cultivars, of such hybrids, typography and initial capitalization of the collective or grex epithet should follow the rule appropriate to the natural or artificial origin of the cultivar(s) concerned. When cited in the International Orchid Register as a parent of a grex or grexes (where no reference to a particular cultivar of a parent is made) the typography and initial capitalization of such hybrid always follows the rule appropriate to a grex epithet, even where the plant originally used as such parent (in the raising on which the registration application was based) was of natural origin. When artificially raised the grex may be registered as such by the first applicant so entitled, and a record of such first artificial raising may also appear in the Register.
(b) If the grex is raised and registered before the time that a botanist describes and publishes a collective epithet for a natural hybrid between the same two species, then one of the following provisions applies: (i) If the grex epithet is not in Latin form, the collective epithet for the naturally-occurring hybrid will be different and in Latin form; the grex epithet as registered is to be retained for horticultural purposes, including use in registration as a parent of future grexes, even where the plant used as such parent is of natural origin. (ii) If the grex epithet is in Latin form (from a time when that was permitted) and is validly published and available, then the collective epithet to be applied to the natural hybrid is the same as the grex epithet in Latin form already registered. When writing or printing the name of a particular cultivar of such hybrid, the same provisions apply as to typography etc. as in sub-para. (a) above. Example: Dendrobium delicatum was originally published as a species, but by the time (1902) it was later botanically reclassified as a natural hybrid between Dendrobium speciosum and Dendrobium kingianum, a grex name in Latin form (Dendrobium Specio-kingianum) had already been registered (1892) by Lawrence for an artificial hybrid of the same cross. If the wild-occurring form is regarded as a natural hybrid therefore, and not as a species, the name Dendrobium × speciokingianum must be used for the wild-occurring form, and not Dendrobium × delicatum"
I hope the above helps to explain our decisions.
With best wishes
Peter Peter F Hunt, BSc MSc MIBiol CBiol FIHort
International Orchid Registrar
International Registration Authority for Orchid Hybrids
PO Box 1072
phone/fax: +44(0)1373 301501